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What are the tax considerations for an entity in Australia?

When starting a business in Australia, there are a number of tax considerations that you need to take into account. This blog post will provide an overview of the key taxes that businesses and individuals in Australia need to pay, including Capital Gains Tax (CGT), Goods and Services Tax (GST), Payroll Tax and more. So, whether you’re just starting out or you’re already up and running, make sure you read on for all the latest information on Australian company and individual tax!

As a business owner in Australia, you’ll need to pay various taxes depending on the type of business you operate. The most common taxes that you’ll face in Australia can be broken down into corporate taxes, indirect taxes and personal taxes.

Corporate Taxes

Income Tax

When it comes to company tax in Australia, there are a number of different rates and thresholds that apply. The rate of company tax you’ll pay will depend on the type of business you operate, as well as your annual turnover. For example, small businesses with an annual turnover of less than $50 million will pay a company tax rate of 27.50%. Meanwhile, large businesses with an annual turnover of more than $50 million will pay a company tax rate of 30%.

In Australia, company tax is calculated by multiplying the business’ taxable income by the company tax rate.

When your income reaches a certain level, you’ll pay income tax in pay as you go (PAYG) instalments, which are typically quarterly.

PAYG instalments require businesses to make regular payments throughout the year, rather than paying their full tax bill at the end of the financial year. This helps to spread the burden of tax payments and makes it easier for businesses to manage their cash flow.

Capital Gains Tax (CGT)

This is a tax that applies to the profits you make from the sale of an asset. This could be shares, property or any other type of asset. The rate of CGT you pay will depend on your individual circumstances.

For example, if you sell an asset that you’ve owned for 12 months or more, you’ll reduce your capital gain by 50%.

CGT is calculated by subtracting the cost of acquiring the asset from the proceeds of its sale. This gives you your ‘capital gain’ on which CGT is payable.

It’s important to note that CGT is only payable on capital gains, not on the total proceeds of a sale. So, if you sell an asset for $100,000 but your ‘capital gain’ is only $20,000, you’ll only pay CGT on the $20,000.

Various exemptions and concessions apply to CGT, so it’s important to seek professional advice to ensure you’re paying the right amount of tax.

Some of the most common exemptions that are available under the Australian capital gains tax regime include the:

  • primary residence exemption
  • small business retirement exemption
  • depreciating assets exemption

The primary residence exemption allows individuals to sell their main home tax-free. To qualify for this exemption, you must have lived in the property as your main home for as long as you have owned it, you must not have used it to produce income, and it must be on land of 2 hectares or less.

The small business retirement exemption allows individuals to sell an asset and reinvest the proceeds into their superannuation fund tax-free. To qualify for this exemption, you must be over the age of 55 and meet certain other conditions.

Depreciating assets are typically exempt from CGT in Australia, provided they are not used for a private or other non-taxable purpose.

Withholding Tax

If you’re an overseas company earning income in Australia, you’ll generally be required to pay tax on that income in Australia. However, you may be able to claim a foreign tax credit for any tax paid on that income in your home country.

If you repatriate your profits to your home country, you may also be subject to withholding tax in Australia. The rate of withholding tax will depend on the relevant tax treaty between Australia and your home country.

The most common type of withholding tax in Australia is dividend withholding tax, which is deducted from dividends paid to non-residents.

The standard rate of dividend withholding tax in Australia is 30%. However, there are a number of dividend imputation rules that apply, which can reduce the amount of tax you pay on dividends. This rate is generally reduced to 15% for countries that have a tax treaty with Australia.

Other types of withholding tax in Australia include interest withholding tax and royalty withholding tax.

For non-treaty countries, the rate of interest withholding tax is typically 10%, while the rate of royalty withholding tax is typically 30%.

For treaty countries, most agreements reduce the royalty withholding tax to 15%, while some agreements provide an exemption from interest withholding tax in certain circumstances.

Transfer Pricing

Transfer pricing rules apply to cross-border transactions between related entities. These rules ensure that the prices charged for goods and services are at arm’s length, which means that they are the same as if the transaction was between two unrelated parties.

The transfer pricing rules in Australia are contained in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997. These rules apply to transactions between related entities that are:

  • based in Australia
  • not based in Australia but derive income from Australia

The Australian Taxation Office has a number of transfer pricing guidelines that tax payers and their advisers can use to ensure they are compliant with the law.

These guidelines cover a range of topics, including:

  • the arm’s length principle
  • methods for determining arm’s length prices
  • documentation requirements
  • the ATO’s approach to transfer pricing audits.

The arm’s length principle is the main rule that applies to transfer pricing. There are a number of methods that can be used to determine arm’s length prices, including the:

  • comparable uncontrolled price method
  • resale price method
  • cost plus method
  • transactional net margin method.

The documentation requirements for transfer pricing are set out in the ATO’s guidelines. These requirements state that taxpayers must keep certain records and documents, including:

  • details of cross-border transactions
  • an analysis of how the arm’s length principle has been applied
  • a description of the methods used to determine prices.

The ATO has a number of transfer pricing audit programs that it uses to ensure compliance with the law. These programs target specific industries and transactions, and they typically involve a review of a taxpayer’s records and documentation.

The ATO has a number of resources that taxpayers and their advisers can use to help them comply with the transfer pricing rules. These resources include:

  • the ATO’s website
  • the ATO’s e-tax guide
  • the ATO’s transfer pricing rulings.

Indirect Taxes

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a 10% tax that applies to the sale of goods and services in Australia. It is one of the most important sources of revenue for the Australian government, and it is applied to a wide range of products and services.

Businesses that sell taxable goods or services need to register for GST with the Australian Taxation Office (ATO). Once registered, businesses must charge GST on all taxable supplies of goods and services. GST-registered businesses can claim back the GST they have paid on their business expenses.

Luxury Car Tax (LCT)

The Luxury Car Tax (LCT) is a tax that applies to certain high-priced vehicles. The LCT threshold is currently $84,916 for fuel-efficient cars and $71,849 for other vehicles. The LCT rate is 33%.

Wine Equalisation Tax (WET)

The Wine Equalisation Tax (WET) is a tax that applies to the sale of wine in Australia.

The WET rate of 29% is designed to be paid on the last wholesale sale of wine, which is usually between the wholesaler and the retailer.

WET is a consumption tax, which means that it is ultimately paid by the consumer. However, businesses that make or import wine are required to register for and pay the WET.

GST is also payable on the sale of wine, but businesses can claim back the GST they have paid on their business expenses.

Customs Duties

Customs duties in Australia are a type of indirect tax that is charged on goods that are imported into the country. The rate of customs duty that is payable depends on the type of goods that are being imported.

Customs duties are charged to protect the domestic industry from unfair competition from imports. They also help to raise revenue for the Australian government.

Some goods are exempt from customs duty, such as certain medical supplies and humanitarian aid.

Stamp Duty

This is a state tax that is charged on the purchase of certain assets, such as shares, property and cars. The amount of stamp duty you pay will depend on the state you live in and the value of the asset you are purchasing.

Land tax

This is a tax on the value of the land your business owns. The amount of land tax you pay will depend on the state you live in and the value of your property.

Personal Taxation

City Sunset

Australia uses a progressive tax system, which means that individuals who earn more money pay a higher marginal rate of tax. The latest marginal tax rates can be found here.

In addition to the marginal tax rates, a Medicare levy of 2% is also payable on all taxable income.

Payroll Tax

Payroll Tax is a state tax that applies to the wages paid by employers to their employees. The amount of payroll tax you pay will depend on the state you operate in, as well as the amount of wages you pay to your employees.

The payroll tax rates in Australia vary depending on the state you operate in. For example, the payroll tax rate in Victoria is 4.85%, while the payroll tax rate in New South Wales is 5.45%.

Payroll tax is typically paid quarterly, and businesses can register for payroll tax online through the ATO website.

Fringe Benefits Tax (FBT)

This is a tax on the benefits you provide to your employees, such as health insurance, personal use of a company car, gym memberships or free parking. FBT is calculated using the value of the benefit or a statutory formula.

Workers’ Compensation

This is insurance that covers your employees for injuries sustained at work. Workers’ compensation insurance is typically paid by the employer, and the premium is calculated based on your industry classification rate and the wages paid to employees.


This is a retirement savings plan that is compulsory for employers to provide for their employees. The current superannuation guarantee is 12%, which means that employers must contribute 12% of their employees’ wages into a superannuation fund. Employers must make contributions into their employees’ superannuation funds at least quarterly.

Employers withholding tax (PAYGW)

Employers are required to withhold tax from their employees’ wages and pay it to the ATO on a quarterly basis. The amount of tax that is withheld depends on the amount of wages paid.

Employee share schemes

Employee share schemes are a way for employees to own shares in the company they work for. The tax treatment of employee share schemes depends on the type of scheme and the shares that are acquired.

Taxation of Foreign Arrangements (TOFA)

These measures cover the rules for classifying financial instruments as debt interests or equity interests for tax purposes and prescribe the way in which foreign exchange gains and losses are identified and calculated. They also provide strict timing rules for ascertaining when foreign exchange (forex) gains and losses are recognised for tax purposes.

Under the TOFA rules, foreign exchange gains and losses are generally identified in the same way as they would be under normal accounting principles. However, there are some specific rules that apply for the purposes of taxation. For example, the TOFA rules may require gains and losses to be recognised on an accruals basis, rather than a cash basis.

The TOFA rules also apply to certain types of derivative contracts, such as futures contracts and options. The TOFA rules can be complex, and you should seek professional advice if you are entering into any transactions that may be affected by them.

Expatriate Employees

Seaside City

Income Tax

For Australian tax purposes, expatriates living and working in Australia will be categorised as either “resident” or “non-resident”.

The tax residency status of an individual is important as it determines which tax rules will apply to them.

If you are considered a resident for tax purposes, you will be taxed on your worldwide income. This means that you will be required to declare all of your income, regardless of whether it is earned in Australia or overseas.

If you are considered a non-resident for tax purposes, you will only be taxed on your Australian-sourced income. This means that you will not be required to declare any overseas income.

The residency status of an individual is determined by a number of factors, including whether they have a “permanent place of abode” in Australia, and whether they are considered to be a “resident” for the purposes of the Social Security Act 1991.

It is therefore essential to review personal investments and other related matters prior to becoming a resident of Australia.

Private Health Insurance

As an expatriate employee in Australia, you may not be eligible for government-funded health care. This means that you will need to consider taking out private health insurance to cover the costs of medical treatment.

There are a number of different types of private health insurance policies available, and it is important to compare the features and benefits of each before you make a decision.

You may also be eligible for a rebate on your private health insurance premiums if you take out a policy with an approved insurer.

The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) website has more information on the private health insurance rebate.


Now that you know a bit more about the taxes businesses need to pay in Australia, you can start planning for your company’s tax liabilities.

Remember, it’s always a good idea to speak to an accountant or tax advisor if you’re unsure about your obligations. They can help you navigate the Australian tax system and ensure you’re compliant with the law.

Thank you for reading! We hope this blog post has been helpful in giving you an overview of the key taxes that businesses in Australia need to pay. If you have any further questions, or if you’re thinking of starting a business in Australia, please don’t hesitate to contact us.

Happy tax planning!